Components of identity include a sense of personal continuity and of uniqueness from other people.
In addition to carving out a personal identity based on the need for uniqueness, people also acquire a social identity based on their membership and acting in various groups-familial, ethnic, occupational, and others. In late modern societies where individualisation has become a “must”, new challenges arise in both perspectives. Young people are faced with the challenge to maintain a sense of coherence over time without the guiding patterns of a standard life course. Young people have to develop a sense of coherence in fragmented contexts that often do not even provide them with a recognised social status. Psychological concepts about new forms of identity formation are similar to what sociologists have noted at the macro-societal level. The identity capital model is a link between the psychologically oriented identity paradigm, and the sociologically oriented individualisation theory. (SM+AP)
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